By Lisa C Ng, Andrew K Persily, Steven J Emmerich
16 reference structures were outlined through the U.S. division of power, and created as EnergyPlus enter records, to be used in assessing new applied sciences and assisting the advance of power codes in pursuing construction strength potency advancements. Infiltration charges within the EnergyPlus versions of the reference constructions have been enter as consistent airflow charges, and never calculated in line with tested development airflow thought. so as to aid extra physically-based airflow calculations, in addition to indoor air caliber research, versions of the sixteen reference structures have been created within the multizone airflow and contaminant shipping application CONTAM. a couple of extra inputs needed to be outlined for the CONTAM versions, and adjustments within the inside zoning have been required, to extra realistically account for airflow. Annual airflow and contaminant simulations have been played in CONTAM for 6 of the constructions. whereas the assumed infiltration charges in EnergyPlus don't realistically mirror affects of climatic conditions, there are transparent relationships among the outdoors air switch charges calculated through CONTAM and climate. additionally, the envelope airtightness values assumed in both strategy are obvious to have a big impression at the air switch premiums. Contaminant analyses have been played for occupant-generated carbon dioxide, unstable natural compounds from indoor resources, outside particulate topic, and outdoors ozone. The airflow and contaminant calculation effects offer an invaluable baseline for next use of those types to enquire techniques to development air flow and different applied sciences which are meant to at the same time decrease construction power intake whereas retaining or enhancing indoor air caliber.
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Additional resources for Airflow and Indoor Air Quality Models of DOE Reference Commercial Buildings
Note that these loads only accounted for the heating and cooling of the infiltration air and do not include latent loads, system effects or internal loads. The infiltration cooling loads calculated using CONTAM were about three to 10 times higher than the EnergyPlus (tight) results. 4 GJ. ) results. ) results. ) results. ) results. For all of the buildings, except the Hospital, the differences in calculated infiltration sensible load between the CONTAM and EnergyPlus (tight) models were 10 % to 60 % of the total energy consumption.
5 concentration for each selected zone. 5 concentrations as shown in Table 8, but the differences are not exceptionally large. 5 is the outdoor air, and their indoor deposition rates are related to zone size. 5. 5 concentrations. 5. Table 8 also shows that the Hospital and Medium Office have the highest indoor VOC concentrations. Because the VOC sources are area-based, the primary factor in determining the indoor concentrations are the outdoor air intake rates per unit floor area. The Hopstial and Medicum Office have the lowest values of the outdoor air intake per floor area, leading to the highest VOC concentrations.
The plots of outdoor air change rate versus wind speed are shown for indoor-outdoor temperature differences with absolute values less than 10 oC. Limiting the plots to low temperature differences and wind speeds makes the effects of ΔT and Ws rate easier to see. Results are plotted for system-on, system-off, and economizer hours (where applicable). In EnergyPlus, cooling and heating setpoints were specified for system-on and system-off hours. Thus, the indoor temperature was not constant. When plotting the outdoor air change rates against the indoor-outdoor temperature difference, the “indoor” temperature for the EnergyPlus simulations were the average of the return air temperatures in the building HVAC systems.
Airflow and Indoor Air Quality Models of DOE Reference Commercial Buildings by Lisa C Ng, Andrew K Persily, Steven J Emmerich