By Roberto Scatena (auth.), Roberto Scatena, Alvaro Mordente, Bruno Giardina (eds.)
In contemporary years, melanoma stem cells were famous as very important part in carcinogenesis and so they appear to shape the root of many (if no longer all) tumor varieties. melanoma stem cells or "cancer phone like stem cells" were remoted from a variety of cancers of other beginning (blood, breast, mind, epidermis, head and neck, thyroid, cervix, lung, retina, colon, pancreas and so on). melanoma stem cells - infrequent cells with indefinite proliferative power that force the formation and progress of tumours- appear to convey interesting relationships with physiological stem cells. particularly, those melanoma cells exhibit major similarities within the mechanisms that keep watch over self-renewal of ordinary stem cells. in addition, tumour cells could without delay come up from general stem cells. additional, the mobile biology of melanoma stem cells convey loads of similarities with general stem cells.
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Additional info for Advances in Cancer Stem Cell Biology
2 Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells: New Insights Fig. 3 Strategy for identifying factors speciﬁc to CSCs. Puriﬁed TSCs, committed precursor cells, and differentiated cells that are transfected with various types of oncogenes and/or siRNA/shRNA for tumor suppressor genes, transform into CSCs that are capable of self-renewal, positive for TSC markers and show malignancy. By comparing gene expression proﬁles of such induced CSCs with that of human CSC-enriched population (tumor spheres and TSC marker-positive cells), novel CSC markers and therapeutic targets would be identiﬁed 27 Tissue Purification of different kinds of cells Stem cells Precursor cells Differentiated cell 4RANSFORMATION Artificial cancer stem cells (CSC) s Expression analysis s Epigenetic analysis s Protein analysis Overexpression of oncogenes and/or deletion of tumor suppressor genes Human primary cancers Human CSC population (Tumor sphere, marker+ cells) Identification of novel CSC markers and therapeutic targets Conclusion A number of new stem cell markers and techniques have been utilized to identify and purify CSCs during last several years.
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The miR-128 and miR-181 are highly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells, helping to maintain their undifferentiated state. The miR-221, miR-222, and miR-223 induce the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors while blockade of differentiation is regulated by miR-16, miR-103, and miR-107, among others. Inhibition of stem cell differentiation may occur indirectly, by silencing genes involved in self-renewal. This is the case of Bmi-1 silencing by miR-128. Another example is the effect of miR-16, which has the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 as one of its targets.
Advances in Cancer Stem Cell Biology by Roberto Scatena (auth.), Roberto Scatena, Alvaro Mordente, Bruno Giardina (eds.)