By Kenneth M. Setton, Norman P. Zacour, Harry W. Hazard
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Extra resources for A History of the Crusades, Vol. VI: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe, Together with a Bibliography of the Crusades
Xii (col. 775); cf. , x (cols. 774-775). 49. Extravagantes communes, V, II, i, (cols. 1289- 1290). Cb. I ' THE LEOAI. AND POLITICAl. THEORY OF THE CRUSADE 27 and exemptions were given, so that it was admitted that there were and might legitimately be Christian communities living in Moslem countries, primarily for trade, not necessarily excommunicate, needing spiritual services; at certain periods, of course, there were considerable numbers of enslaved prisoners. The only profit that the popes ostensibly accepted as desirable is missionary, but trade itself has advantages both ways; the popes simply tried to insist on reserving to themselves the decision in each individual case, and gave licenses for trade limited by the number of ships and to a fixed period, for example, a year.
Tomasseui, op. , Innocent III, 111, 223- 224 (no. 62: 1208), and 274-278 (no. 92: 1214). 25. , Ill, 300- 304 (no. 107); Hefele, tr. Le<:lercq, Histoire des conciles, V-1, pp. 1390 If. Cb. I THE LEGAL AND POUTICAL THEORY OF THE CRUSADE 13 for fighting against the Moors in Spain or against Albigensians in Languedoc, as only temporary. Subsequently it was enough that the indulgences should be announced "according to the statute of the [Fourth Lateran] general council". 26 These problems o f public war and private forgiveness are really quite simple, even in terms contemporary with the crusade.
Politically, the church, (Latin) Christian society under papal guidance, has claimed the right to the "inheritance of the Lord" in the same way as the chosen people had a right to the promised land; and when Celestine approvingly quoted how one man overthrew a thousand, and "slaughtered something like an infinite multitude", he was coming close to a justification of the slaughter of infinite multitudes in any situation, because any situation may be seen as reproducing events of the Old Testament.
A History of the Crusades, Vol. VI: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe, Together with a Bibliography of the Crusades by Kenneth M. Setton, Norman P. Zacour, Harry W. Hazard